“新年貨”鼓風機的祖先,是中國人發明的?!(下)丨科學史

   

編者按:針對前幾天刷屏的《啥是佩奇》,中科院科學史所的黃興副研究員介紹了很多我國古代用來“扇米”的鼓風機,今天他將為我們講解更多鼓風機的知識。

SHANGPIAN()SHUODAO,YEYEYONGGUFENGJIZHIZUOLEYIGEKEAIDE“PEIQI”。ERZHEZHONGGUFENGJIDEZUXIANJINGRANSHIZHONGGUOLIANGQIANNIANQIANFAMINGDESHANCHE。SUIRANSHANCHEBUNENGYONGLAISHAOHUOZUOFAN,DANZHONGGUORENHUANFAMINGLEDUOZHONGZHUANMENSHAOHUODEGUFENGQI,BUJINNENGZUOFAN,HUANNENGYONGLAILIANTONGYETIE。

DAJIASHOUXIANXIANGDAODEKENENGJIUSHI——FENGXIANG(SHUANGZUOYONGHUOSAISHIFENGXIANG)。DADUILA!

YELIANYONGDEDAFENGXIANGFENGLISHIZU,YAOHAOJIGERENCAINENGLADONG,CHANGYONGSHUILIQUDONG。YOUSHIGANCUIBADASHUTAOKONGZHICHENGXIANGTI,CHENGYAHEMIFENGXINGDOUSHIGONGYEJIDE。

明代宋應星《天工開物》“冶鐵炒鐵

云南鶴慶土法煉鉛爐水力驅動的風箱(孫淑云教授供圖)

XIAOXINGDEMINYONGFENGXIANGYONGMUBANPINGUERCHENG。ZAINONGCUN,JIHUMEIJIADOUYOUYIGE,YONGLAISHAOHUOZUOFAN。

FENGXIANGSHUYURONGJIXINGWANGFUSHIGUFENGQI。TONGGUOYASUORONGJI,JIANGKONGQIJICHUQU;ZHIYAOSHIJINGYA,JIUKEYIXINGCHENGHENGAODEJINGYA。QIMIAOCHUZAIYU——TUILAGUOCHENGDOUKEYIGUFENG。

ZHESHIZENMEZUODAODENI?GUANJIANDIAN:FENGXIANGBISHANGANZHUANGLE4GEHUOMENHEYIGEFENGDAO。

XIANGYOULADESHIHOU,ZUOCEHUOMENZAIXIANGWAIQILIUZUOYONGXIA,ZIDONGDAKAI,QILIUJINRU;YOUFANGHUOMENZAIXIANGNEIQILIUDAIDONGXIA,ZIDONGGUANBI;ZHEYANGHUOSAIYOUCEQILIUJIUTONGGUOYOUXIAFANGDEHUOMENLIUDAOFENGDAONEI;ZAICONGFENGZUIPAICHULAI。FANZHI,XIANGZUOTUIDESHIHOU,4GEHUOMENFANXIANGZUOYONG,SHIDEYOUCEQILIUJINRUXIANGNEI,ZUOCEQILIUJINGGUOFENGDAO,CONGFENGZUIPAICHULAI。YOUDEFENGXIANGJIANGFENGDAONEIDELIANGGEHUOMENHEBINGWEIYIGESHUANGXIANGHUOMEN。ZAIQILIUDAIDONGXIAZUOYOUKAIBI,YINDAOQILIUCONGFENGZUIPAICHULAI。ZHENSHIBAHUOMENGEIWANJUELE!

雙作用活塞式風箱工作示意圖(俯視,黃興 繪)

FENGXIANGCHUXIANYUSONGDAI。NANSONGKANKE(YUE1280NIAN)DE《YANQINDOUSHUSANSHIXIANGSHU》ZHONGYOULIANGFUJIANDANDEFENGXIANGTU;JINNIANYOUXUEZHEJUFUSHITEZHENGRENWEIZHEBENSHUCHENGSHUYUMINGDAI。DANXINFAXIANDEXIXIATAOZHISHUANGZUOYONGHUOSAISHIGUFENGQIWEIQICHUXIANNIANDAIDEPANDING,ZHONGXINTIGONGLEJIANSHIDEZHENGJU。

ZHONGWAIYECENGSHIYONGQITADUOZHONGRONGJIXINGGUFENGQI,DANDOUSHIDANXIANGGUFENG,XIANGZHUSHEQIYIYANG,ZHIYOUCHAOYIGEFANGXIANGYADESHIHOUCAIYOUFENG。YIBANJIANGLIANGGEGUFENGQIZUOWEIYIZU,JIAOTITUILA,YIXINGCHENGCHIXUDEQILIU。

ZUIZAODERONGJIXINGGUFENGQIJIUSHIPINANG。

YUANSHIDEHUNTUOSHIPINANG,XUYAOSHOUCHIMUBINGYIZHANG、YIHE、ZAIYIYA,BAKONGQIXIJINLAI、GUCHUQU;ZAIYINDU、ZHONGGUOXIZANG、DONGBEIYADENGDI,YIJIZAIOUZHOUDEJIPUSAIRENDOUSHIYONGGUO。QIFENGYAHEFENGLIANGDOUYOUXIAN,ZHINENGLIANTONGHUOYELIANKUAILIANTIE。

中國拉薩娘熱鄉傳統鼓風灶(黃興 攝)

印度鐵匠使用渾脫式皮囊鼓風(Thomas Ewbank. A Descriptive and Historical Account of Hydraulic and Other Machines for Raising Water, Ancient and Modern, with Observations on Various.1858)

東北亞北方四島原住民使用的渾脫式皮囊(《北蝦夷圖說》)

XIAMIANZHEYIBODAXINGPINANGSHUYUSHENGJIBAN:

山東藤縣東漢鼓風鍛鐵畫像石上的皮囊(國家博物館藏,黃興 攝)

歐洲楔形皮囊(德國魯爾博物館藏,潛偉 攝)

西班牙盧斯塔尼亞16世紀雙筒鼓風皮囊(Georgius Agricola: De Re Metallica. 1556.)

DAXINGPINANGDEFENGLIANGHEFENGYADOUHENZU;HUANANZHUANGLEHUOMEN,QILIUZIDONGZOUTAGAIZOUDELUJING,RENZHIFUZETUILAJIUXING。ZHEYESHIYINGYONGSHUILIGUFENGDEZHONGYAOQIANTI。

SUIZHUMUGONGJISHUDEJINBU,GUFENGQIJINRULEMUZHISHIDAI。ZAIZHONGGUOFENGXIANGCHUXIANZHIQIAN,XIANYOULEMUSHAN。

BEISONG《WUJINGZONGYAO》JIZAIDE“XINGLU”YONGMUSHANGUFENG;SHOUCHENGSHIRONGHUATIESHUI,XIANGDIRENPOSA,HUOJIANGTIESHUIZHUANGRUTUPINGNEI,PAOXIANGDIREN。“XINGLU”ZUIZAOKEYIZHUISUDAOTANGXUANZONGLILONGJIDEERZITANGSUZONGSHIQI——LIQUANZHU《SHENJIZHIDITAIBAIYINJING》YIYOUWENZIJIZAI。

“行爐”圖(北宋《武經總要》)

YINGSHIJUZHONGSHAOHONGDELUOTIEYIRANGREN“BUTANGERLI”;“TIESHUILINTOU”SHUILEYINAOBUYIXIA?E~~

MUSHANBEIGUANGFANYONGYUYEJINCHANGSUO。ZAIDUNHUANGYULINKUXIXIABIHUA《QIANSHOUGUANYINBIAN》、YUANDAI《AOBOTU》YUWANGZHEN《NONGSHU》DENGCHUZHONGCHANGJIANTADESHENYING。

古代木扇冶鐵動畫(黃興 制作)

敦煌榆林窟西夏壁畫《千手觀音變》局部“打鐵圖(J. Needham. Science and Civilization in China(Ⅳ︰2),1965)

元代陳椿《熬波圖詠》“鑄造鐵盤”圖(《四庫全書》)

元代王禎《農書》“水排”圖(王禎著,王毓瑚校. 王禎農書. 北京:農業出版社,1981)

MUSHANSHENZHIYIZHIYONGDAOLEJINJINIAN——WOMENYEJINKAOGUXIALINGYINGYEYONGMUSHANYELIAN。

DAJIADOUJUEDEMUSHANHENGEILI,WEISHA?ZHESHIYIGEXIAOWULITI:MUSHANDETUILAGANWEIYUSHANBANXIAFANG,ERSHANNEIQITIYALIDENGXIAOZUOYONGDIANZAIZHONGJIAN,YOUCIMUSHANBANJIUQIDAOLEGANGGANDEZUOYONG——MUSHANGENGRONGYICHANSHENGGAOFENGYA。

LEISIDEGUFENGQIZAIQITAGUOJIAYEYOUSHIYONG,DANWANLEHENDUO。1550NIANQIANHOU,DEGUOGONGJIANGJIANGXIEXINGPINANGGAIJINWEIMUFENGXIANG,HENKUAIYEYONGLESHUILIGUFENGYETIE,HUHUDE。

歐洲水輪驅動的楔形木扇結構圖(Henning Calv?r. Historical Chronological and Mechanical Facts in Relation to Metallurgy in Upper Hercynia. 1763.)

17-18SHIJIRIBENYONGTABEIGUFENGZHUQIAN——LUHUOTAIDA,SHANGFANGJIAOWA:

日本17-18世紀鑄錢場用踏鞴鼓風熔鐵(李延祥 供圖)

QITADIQUYEYONGGUOXIAOXINGMUZHIGUFENGQI。KANKANMADAJIASIJIADAOSHANGSHENGCHANKUAILIANTIEDECHANGJING。FEIZHOUXIAOGELIANGUFENGDEDONGZUODOUXIANGTIAOWU,DONGGANSHIZU(QINGKANGUANNAOBU:HEI~HEI!)

馬達加斯加塊煉鐵雙缸鼓風筒(William Ellis, et al.. History of Madagascar. 1838.)

MADAJIASIJIADAOSHANGHUANYOUYIZHONGGUFENGQI:YIGENCHUIZHIDEHUOSAIGANSHANGANZHUANGLELIANGGEHUOSAI,ZHONGJIANGELEYIGESHUANGXIANGHUOMEN,MEIGEHUOSAISHANGYEYOUYIGEDANXIANGHUOMEN。TUILADESHIHOU,CEMIANDECKOUDOUNENGCHUFENG。ZAN!

馬達加斯加雙活塞鼓風筒(Thomas Ewbank. A Descriptive and Historical Account of Hydraulic and Other Machines for Raising Water, Ancient and Modern, with Observations on Various, 1858.)

ZHEZHONGGUFENGQISHIBALIANGGEFENGXIANGCHUANLIANQILAI,QITADESHUANGTONGGUFENGQIKEYISHIWEIBINGLIAN。

ZHIYOUZHONGGUODEFENGXIANG:YIGEHUOSAIBANLIANGCEJIAOTIJINFENG、GUFENG,JIANGGUFENGQIDETIJIJINGJIANDAOLEJIZHI。ZHECAISHIZHENZHENGDESHUANGZUOYONG!

ZHONGGUOGUDAIDEGUFENGJISHUCHANGQICHUYUGUOJIQIANLIE,DUIYEJINJISHUDEFAZHANGONGXIANZHUOZHU。

JICI,ZHONGGUOZAIGONGYUANQIAN8SHIJIJIUYIJIANLIGAODADESHULUYELIANSHENGTIE,LUWENCHAOGUO1400℃,GAOXIAODISHIXIANLEZHA、TIEYETAIFENLI。DONGHANCHUNIAN,DUSHICHUANGZHISHUIPAI,KAIWAIGUAYONGSHUILIGUFENGYETIE。HANDAIQIZHUJIANXINGCHENGLEDUTEDESHENGTIEJISHENGTIEZHIGANGJISHUTIXI。OUZHOUYIZHIYANYONGJIANDANDIXIAODEKUAILIANTIEJISHU,GONGYUAN13~14SHIJICAIDONGDEYELIANSHENGTIE。SHENGTIESHIZHONGGUODELINGYIGEDAFAMING,DUIZHONGHUAWENMINGZAITIEQISHIDAIDEFANRONGHEFAZHANGONGBUKEMEI,ERZHONGGUOGUDAIXIANJINGUFENGQI——GONGYIBUKEMEI。

HAOLA,FULIYOULAILE~,ZHONGGUOKEXUEYUANZIRANKEXUESHIYANJIUSUOYESHOUZANGLE“PEIQI”BANGUFENGJIDEYUANFANGQINQI——HUNTUOSHIPINANG、MUSHAN、SHUANGZUOYONGHUOSAISHIGUFENGQI。KAIFANGRIDESHIHOU,XIAOPENGYOUWANDEDUOKAIXIN!HOU~HOU~!

來源:中國科學院自然科學史研究所

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