產量高,效益好!一文細說對蝦工廠化養殖,這9大關鍵事項,新手必須注意!

       

GUANGGAO

GUANGGAO

GUANGGAO

DANGDAISHUICHANDUJIABAODAO:

ZUOZHE?|?LIRUICHENG GUANGZHOUSHIFANYUQUNONGYEKEXUEYANJIUSUO

ZUOZHE?|?ZHANGYANYING HAINANZHENGQIANGCHAOYUESHENGHUAJISHUKAIFAYOUXIANGONGSI

LAIYUAN |?TENGSHISHUICHANSHANGWUWANG-DANGDAISHUICHAN

GONGCHANGHUAYANGXIAZHANDISHAO,CHANLIANGGAO,XIAOYIHAO,KEYIBIMIANCHUANTONGYANGXIAFANGSHIDAILAIDEXIABINGHESHUITIWURAN, JIANSHAOTIANQIBIANHUADUIYANGZHIDEBULIYINGXIANG。 WOGUOYANHAIDEDUIXIAYANGZHIJINGGUODUONIANDEFAZHAN, GONGCHANGHUAYANGXIAJUYOUYIDINGDEJICHU, BUFENDIQUGONGCHANGHUAYANGZHIYIDASHIJIEXIANJINSHUIPING, DANZONGTISHANGJIBENCAIYONG“SHUINICHI+WENSHIDAPENG” WEIHEXINDEJINGYANGMOSHI。

YI、YANGZHITIAOJIAN

(YI)CHANGZHIXUANZE

JIANCHANGSHOUXIANYINGKAOLVSHUIYUANSHUIZHISHIFOUDABIAO、SHUIYUANSHIFOUCHONGZU;YANGZHIWUSHUICHULIPAIFANGSHIFOUDAILAIWURAN;YONGDIANSHIFOUWENDING,SHENGCHANZILIAO(SILIAO、YAOPINDENG)SHIFOUGONGGEICHONGZU;YOUYUHUANBAOWENTI,JINZHISHAOMEI,ERSHIYONGTIANRANQICHENGBENGUOGAO,YINGYOUXIANXUANZEYONGYOUDIREZIYUANDEDIFANGJIANCHANG。

(ER)CHITANGJIANSHEYUGAIZAO

1、溫棚建造

YANGZHICHITANGPUBIANCAIYONGSHUINICHI+WENPENGDEJIANZAOGONGYI。WENPENGMIANJI500-5000PINGFANGMI,PINGMIANTUXINGYICHANGFANGXIANGWEIYI。WUDINGJIEGOUYOUGONGXING、XIANGYANGXING、SANJIAOXINGDENG,CAIYONGGANGWUJIA、MUWUJIA、GANGMUHUNHEJIA、HUNNITUJIEGOUDENG。WUDINGFUGAIBAOWENMO,CAIYONGGANGJINJIEGOUHUOGANGSIJIEGOUZUOWEIBAOWENMODEZHICHENG。

2、養殖池改造

YANGZHICHIBUYITAIDA,YINGYINDIZHIYI。YIFANGXING、YUANXINGWEIHAO,MIANJI30--200PINGFANGMI;YEYOUSHEJICHENGPAODAOSHI。CHIDILVECHENGGUODI,ZHONGYANGSHEZHIPAIWUKOU;XIACHISHUIWEIKONGZHIZAI2.0MI,PINGSHIWEICHISHUIWEIZAI1.0-1.5MI。MUQIANNANFANGYOUXIEDIFANGSHIYONGBOLIGANGSHUICAO、BOMOCHIJINXINGYANGZHI。CHITANGTONGGUOSHEZHIJUYIXIGUANDAO,JINXINGJINSHUIHEPAISHUI。

3、蓄水池(海水處理池)

JINRUXIACHIDESHUITIXUYAOJINXINGCHENDIAN、XIAODU、GUOLVCHULI。YIBANXUSHUICHIXUSHUINENGLIYUYANGZHISHUITIBILIWEI1:2ZUOYOU,SHIYANGZHIMOSHILAIJUEDINGXUSHUICHIDEMIANJI。XUSHUINENGLIBIXUMANZUGAOFENGYONGSHUIDEXUYAO。

4、增氧設備

XIACHIDEZENGYANGZHUYAOSHIYONGGUFENGJI,PIPEIDEGONGLVWEIMEIFANGSHUITI15-20WA,YIBANYANGZHICHANGYINGPEIBEI2TAIYISHANGDEGUFENGJI,YUFANGCHUXIANGUZHANGSHIYINGJISHIYONG。KONGQITONGGUOGUANDAO、QIPAN(QISHI、NAMIGUAN)DENGSHUSONGDAOCHIDI,WEICHISHUIZENGYANG。DACHIZIHEPAODAOSHIYANGZHICHITANGKESHIYONGXIELUNSHIZENGYANGJI。BAOZHENGSHUITIRONGJIEYANGZAI5mg/lYISHANG。

ER、YANGZHIQIANDEZHUNBEIGONGZUO

(YI)SHUICHIXIAODUHEWENPENGXUNZHENG

1、溫棚熏蒸。在養殖前,應對溫棚進行消毒,一般可以采用熏蒸的方法對空氣、薄膜、縫隙等進行消毒,殺滅有害的微生物。一般用高錳酸鉀、水和福爾馬林按1:1:2 的比例混合,使之產生氣體,進行消毒。

2、新建水泥池,用水浸泡10天以上,多次浸泡洗刷,消除水泥浸出物。水池和管道用強氯精或漂白精按有效氯5-6ppm消毒。

(ER)SHUITIXIAODU

1、進水:池塘消毒過后,排掉消毒水,沖洗池底,進水至80厘米,進水口用80目雙層篩絹網過濾。使用過濾水的無需再次網濾。

2、消毒:進水到位,用碘制劑(有效碘1%)0.5-1ppm潑灑,殺滅水體病原菌和病毒。

(SAN)PEISHUI、HUOSHUI

1、解毒

YONGYOUJISUANJIEDUJIPOSA,JIECHUSHUITIDEYOUDUWUZHI。

2、培菌

YONGFUHERUSUANJUNRONGYE5ppm+YABAOGANJUN1ppm+HONGTANG10ppmJINPAO3-4XIAOSHIPOSA,GETIAN1CI。LIANYONG2-3CI。PEIYANGWENDINGDEYIYOUYIWEISHENGWUWEIZHUDAODEWEISHENGTAIXITONG,FANGYUYOUHAIJUNDEZISHENG。

3、培水育藻

ZAIDIERCIPEIJUNSHI,YONGHUANGFUSUANJIA3ppm+HONGTANG1ppmPEIHESHILIANGFEISHUICHANPINPOSA;PEIYANGYOUYIDANBAOZAOLEI。

SAN、FANGMIAO

1、蝦苗的選擇與試水:

(1)選苗:選擇信譽度好、種蝦來源明確、健康的蝦苗進行養殖。健康蝦苗群體發育整齊,肢體完整、光潔,肌肉飽滿透明,附肢中色素正常,胃腸充滿食物,游動活潑,逆游能力強,外部無寄生物及附著污物。

(2)試水:放苗前試水是養殖不可少的一個環節。放苗前,從苗場取200-300尾蝦苗,放到水池的網箱中,24小時后計算成活率。成活率達到90%,即可放苗。如達不到,要找出原因,對因處理后方可放苗。

2、放苗密度:

GENJUDANGDIDEYANGZHICHENGHUOLV、YINGJIANTIAOJIANHEHUANSHUILIANG,YIJIJISHUGUANLISHUIPINGDENG,ZONGHEKAOLVFANGMIAOLIANG,YINDIZHIYISHEZHIYANGZHIMIDU,QIEWUGENFENG。YIBANMEIFANGSHUITIFANGMIAO500-800WEI,TIAOJIANJIAOHAODEKEYIFANGDAO1000-1200WEI。

3、放苗前的操作:

FANGMIAOQIAN1TIAN,YONGZHIHUJUNPOSA,YIZHIHUJUNDESHENGCHANG。

FANGMIAOQIAN2XIAOSHI,YONGDUOWEI+YOUJISUANJIEDUJIPOSA,JIECHUYINGJI,BAOZHANGXIAMIAORUCHISHUNLITUIKE;DIERTIANZAIYONG1CI。

SI、SIYANGGUANLI

GONGCHANGHUAYANGZHIBUTONGYUWAITANGYANGZHI,SHUITIERLIAOSHENGWUQUEFA,FANGMIAODEDANGTIANJIUYINGGAITOUWEISILIAO。TONGSHI,YOUYUSHUITIDEGUNDONGZHUANGTAI,SHUITIDEYOUJISUIXIEXUANFUZAISHUIZHONG,SHIZHONGYAODESHIWULAIYUAN。YINCIGONGCHANGHUAYANGZHIDESIWEIGUANLITEBIEZHONGYAO。

(YI) TOULIAOLIANGDECISHU

YIBANFANGMIAOCHUQI,MEITIANTOUWEI4-6CAN,YONGXIAPIANHEKAIKOULIAOTOUWEI,YOUTIAOJIANDEKEYISHIDANGTOUWEILUCHONG(FENGNIANCHONG)、RAOZULEIHEZHIJIAOLEI。YIHOUZHUJIANJIANWEI3-4CAN,TOUWEIDUIXIAPEIHESILIAO,YOUTIAOJIANDEBUCHONGTOUWEISHENGWUERLIAO,RULUCHONGDENG。

(ER) TOULIAOLIANGDEQUEDING

KEYICANKAOYIXIABIAOGE,JIEHEDANGSHISHUIWEN、SHUIZHIHEDUIXIASHIYU,LAIJUEDINGTOULIAOLIANG。SHUIHAO、XIAJIANKANG、SHUIWENSHIYI,KEDUOTOU;SHUIWENGAO、SHUITIXUANFUWUDUO、TUIKEQISHAOTOUHUOSHIDANGTINGLIAO。ZAIXIAMIAOCHANGDAO4LIMIYIHOU,YICHAKANSILIAOTAI,JIEHESHUIZHI、QIHOULAIDIAOZHENGTOULIAOLIANG。

10WANWEIXIATOULIAOCANKAOBIAO

≤1LIMI

150-200

2LIMI

800-1000KE

3LIMI

4JIN

4LIMI

8JIN

5LIMI

15JIN

6LIMI

28JIN

7LIMI

35JIN

8LIMI

50JIN

9LIMI

70JIN

10LIMI

96JIN

11LIMI

104JIN

12LIMI

124JIN

(SAN) BUCHONGYINGYANG,CHANGWEIBAOJIAN

YOUYUGONGCHANGHUAYANGZHISHUITIZHONGXUANFUDALIANGDEYOUJIZHI,DUIXIACHISHIYOUJISUIXIEFEICHANGRONGYICHUXIANGANCHANGWENTI,ERYIDANCHUXIANLAXI,FENBIANRONGJIEDAOSHUITI,DAOZHISHUITIFAZHAN,DUIXIAYANSHI、SAIZHONG、SHOUSHEN,SHUITIYOUHAIWUZHIRUYAXIAOSUANYAN、ANDANDENGSHENGGAO。ELIEDESHUIHUANJINGYOUXIEPODUIXIADEJIANKANG,YINQISHENGCHANGHUANMAN、FABINGHUOTOUSI。YINCI,CHANGWEIBAOJIANHEBUCHONGYINGYANGFEICHANGGUANJIAN。

1、保護腸胃:用復合乳酸菌溶液+多維拌料投喂,每天1-2餐,可以一直拌料投喂;每5天再加蛭弧菌拌料,連用2天,保護腸道,減預防弧菌感染。

2、預防弧菌(EMS)、白便:用單甘脂+多維拌料投喂,每天1-2餐,連用5-7天為一個周期。同時水體做抗弧菌處理,如潑灑蛭弧菌或適當消毒。

3、增強食欲,拉稀:黃芪多糖+楊樹花+甜菜堿拌料投喂,每天2餐。

4、預防白便:單甘脂+黃芪多糖+復合乳酸菌溶液拌料投喂,在白便流行季節使用。

5、補充營養,促進生長:小肽+多糖+多維連續拌料,每天1-2餐。也可用肽補和保護腸胃的組方聯合拌料,效果更佳。

WU、YANGZHIQIANQIGUANLI

FANGMIAOHOUDEYANGZHIQIANQIGUANLISHIFENZHONGYAO,XIAMIAOZAIXINDEHUANJINGZHONGSHIFOUSHIYING,SHIWUSHIFOUCHONGZUDENG,ZHIJIEYINGXIANGDAOXIAMIAODESHENGCHANGHEJIANKANG。

1、BAOZHENGCHONGZUDEKAIKOUERLIAO,YIBANFANGMIAOYIHOUMASHANGTOUWEI,YONGXIAPIANHEKAIKOULIAOJINPAOFUHERUSUANJUNRONGYEHEDUOWEIPOSA。YOUTIAOJIANDEZAIFANGMIAOQIAN,SHUITITOUFANGSHILIANGDEFENGNIANCHONGGENGJIA。

2、FANGMIAODISAN、DIBATIAN,YONGYANGSHUHUA+YOUJISUANJIEDUJIPOSA,YUFANGMIAOQICHANGWEIJIBINGHEHUANGTIDEFASHENG。DIERTIANYONGZHIHUJUN+GUANGHEXIJUNPOSA,YIZHIYOUHAIJUNZAODEZISHENG。

3、DIWU、DISHITIAN,YONGFUHERUSUANJUNRONGYE+DUOWEIPOSA,WEICHISHUIZHIQINGXIN,TIGAOXIAMIAOHUOLI。

4、DIQI、DISHISITIAN,YONGGUOLIUSUANQINGJIAPIANGANSA,YANGHUACHIDI,JIEDU、HUDI,YIZHIYOUHAIJUNZAO。

5、DANGCHUXIANSHUIZHAN(QITOUMEIYOUPAOMOHUOPAOMOBUSAN)SHI,YONGGUOYANGHUAGAI+BIAOMIANHUOXINGJIPOSA,QUNIANZENGYANG,QINGCHUYOUHAIWUZHI,DIAOLICHANGDAO。

6、SHUISEGUODANSHI,YONGFUZHISUANNAPEIHEFEISHUICHANPINPOSA,PEIYANGZAOLEI。

LIU、ZHUANGANQIGUANLI

DUIXIAYANGZHIDAO4LIMIZUOYOU,GANYIXIANXIAMIANDEBAIMOCHUXIAN,YUSHIZHUANGANQIDEDAOLAI。ZHUANGANQISHIDUIXIABIJIAORONGYIFABINGDEJIEDUAN。ZHEGEJIEDUAN,DUIXIASHIYUWANGSHENG,SHENMEDOUCHI,RONGYIDAOZHICHANGWEIJIBING;LINGYIFANGMIAN,CIJIEDUANSHENGCHANGSUDUJIAOKUAI,GANYIXIANDEFUDANJIAOZHONG。SUOYIZHEGEJIEDUANRONGYICHUXIANGANYIXIANDEWENTI。

1、GANCHANGBAOJIAN,YIBANYONGLONGDANXIEGANSAN+HUANGQIDUOTANG+DUOWEIBANLIAOTOUWEI,MEITIAN2CAN,LIANYONG5-6TIAN。

2、JIEDUHUGAN,YONGGUOSUAN+YANGSHUHUAPOSA,WANSHANGYONGGUOLIUSUANQINGJIAPIANYANGHUACHIDI。

3、HUDIGAIDI,MEI5-7TIANYONGGUOLIUSUANQINGJIAPIAN+BIAOMIANHUOXINGJIGANSA。

QI、SHUIZHIGUANLI

1、換水

YANGZHIQIANQIMEITIANJIASHUI5-10GONGFEN,DANGSHUIWEIDADAO1.2MISHI,KEYIHUANSHUI,MEITIANHUANSHUI10GONGFEN。DANGXIAMIAOSHENGCHANGDAO4GONGFENHOU,JIADAHUANSHUILIANG,KERIHUANSHUI10-20%;HOUQIHUANSHUI30-50%。HUANSHUILIANGSHISHUIZHIQINGKUANGERDING,YINGJIXIAKERIHUANSHUI100%。HUANSHUISUISHIGAILIANGSHUIZHIZUIKUAIDEFANGFA,DANHUANSHUILIANGGUODA,HUIYINQIYINGJIYANSHIHESHOUSHENDENGWENTI。

2、解毒

GONGCHANGHUAYANGZHIDUIXIA,QIANQICHUXIANHUANGTIBUCHANG,ZHONGHOUQICHUXIANLANTI,DUOSHISHUITIYOUDUWUZHICHAOBIAODETIXIAN,YINGDINGQIJIEDU。YIBANMEI7-10TIAN,YONGFUZHISUANNA5ppm+TANSUANGAI5ppmPOSA。

3、培水

ZAIYANGZHIGUOCHENGZHONG,DINGQIYONGFUHERUSUANJUNRONGYE5ppm+HONGTANG1ppm+YABAOJUN0.5ppmJINPAO2-4XIAOSHIPOSA,WEICHISHUIZHIWENDING;YONGGUANGHEXIJUNYIZHIJIAZAODENGYOUHAIZAOLEIFANZHI。

4、穩水

YANGZHIZHONGHOUQI,SHUITIYOUJIZHIJIAODUO,SHUITIDEWEILIANGYUANSURONGYIQUEFA,ZONGYINGDU、ZONGJIANDUXIAJIANG,SHUIZHIBUWENDING,PHXIAJIANG,YOUHAIZAOZISHENG。YIBANYONGTANSUANGAI10ppm+BIAOMIANHUOXINGJI1ppmPOSA,TIGAOYINGDUHEJIANDU,WENDINGSHUIZHI。

5、去黏

QITOUMEIYOUQIPAOHUOQIPAOBUSAN,SHISHUIZHANDEBIAOXIAN,YINGJISHIYONGGUOYANGHUAGAI5ppm+BIAOMIANHUOXINGJI1ppmPOSA,QUNIANZENGYANG,QINGCHUYOUHAIWUZHI。

6、氧化底底

DINGQIYONGGUOLIUSUANQINGJIAPIANGANSA,MEI5-7TIANYICI。

BA、RICHANGGUANLI

DUIXIAYANGZHIDERICHANGGUANLISHIFENGUANJIAN,BAOKUOJIANCHASHUIZHI、CHISHI、DUIXIAJIANKANG、HUANJINGKONGZHIDENG。

1、水質檢測。定時檢測水體的PH值、氨氮、亞硝酸鹽、溶解氧等水質指標,確保水質達標,出現水質指標超標和變化過大,及時采取處理措施。

2、檢查對蝦吃食情況,及時調節投料量;檢查對蝦的健康狀態,發現問題,及時處理。

3、控溫。水溫控制在28-32℃,日夜溫差不大于3℃,使對蝦各項生理指標達到最佳。低溫到影響生長時,采用加溫設備提高水溫;高溫時,打開門窗,增加通風來降低棚溫。

4、控光。棚頂可以設置半透明的無紡布等遮光材料,并加固,達到控制光照的效果,避免過強額光照引起有害藻類如藍藻、甲藻等生長,影響對蝦的生長。

5、增氧。高密度的對蝦養殖,必須保證溶解氧充足,水體溶解必須氧達到5mg/l以上,水面氣泡成沸騰狀。一般1000方水體使用15kw的羅茨鼓風機2臺,每平方米放置氣石2個。換水時,應及時調節氣流開關,避免不換水的池子由于相對水位過高,充氣不足導致缺氧。

6、抗應激。在水質變化大、水質指標超標、氣候突變,大量換水時,適當潑灑抗應激的產品,提高對蝦對應激的適應,提高體質和活力,預防疾病發生和偷死。

JIU、JIBINGZONGHEFANGZHI

DUIXIAGONGCHANGHUAYANGZHIDEJIBINGCHULEYIBANDEGANRANXINGJIBINGWAI,GENGDUOSHIHUANJINGXINGDEJIBING。GONGCHANGHUAYANGZHICHITANGDEYANGZHISHUITIJIAOXIAO,CAOZUOFANGMIAN,GELIHAO,DUICHUANRANXINGJIBINGDEFANGKONGJUYOUYOUSHI。DANYOUYUMIDUDA,PUQIHUANJINGDENG,SHUITIRONGJIEDEYOUJIZHIDUO,CHAOCHUSHUITIDEZIJINGNENGLI,XUYAOTONGGUODALIANGHUANSHUIHUOTOUFANGWEISHENGWUZHIJILAIJIEJUESHUIZHIWURANWENTI,ERZHEXIEHUIDAILAIJIAOGAODEHAOYANGHEYINGJI。

ZONGJIEDUONIANDEGONGCHANGHUAYANGZHIDUIXIAJINGYAN,TICHUYIXIAJIBINGZONGHEFANGKONGCUOSHI。

1、廠區嚴格消毒。

FANGMIAOQIAN,CHIZI、GUANDAO、GONGJUCHEDIXIAODU,SHENGCHANCHEJIANYANGEXUNZHENG,CHEDISHAMIEBINGYUANTI,XIAOCHUYINHUAN。

2、水源處理。

(1)YONGSHUIJINGGUOXIAODU、GUOLV,CHEDISHAMIEBINGYUANTI,XIAOCHUYINHUAN。

(2)JIANCESHUITIDEZHIBIAO,JISHIBUCHONGKUANGWUYUANSU,TIGAOZONGJIANDUHEZONGYINGDU。

3、種苗檢疫。

FANGYANGTONGGUOJIANCEBUDAITEDINGBINGDUHEHUJUNDEZHONGMIAO。

4、嚴格控制投喂量,保護腸胃。

GONGCHANGHUADUIXIAYANGZHI,CHANGYANSHIZUIPINFADEJIBING。

5、合理使用水質改良劑,減少換水量,減少應激。

6、補充足夠的鈣鎂營養和總堿度。