這篇文章把膜法水處理技術說透了...

       

BIANJI:ZHENNI

膜法水處理相對于傳統水處理方式具有能耗低、工藝簡單、運行穩定和出水水質高等諸多優勢,已經在很多領域獲得推廣應用。膜法水處理技術目前主要應用于污水處理(包括市政污水處理和工業污水處理)、給水凈化(包括市政給水凈化和工業給水凈化)、海水淡化(苦咸水淡化)和純水制備等領域。

?膜法水處理技術?

膜法水處理的構成

1、YUCHULI

2、MOCHULIZHUANGZHI

3、HOUCHULI

預處理的作用:

◆QUCHUXUANFUGUTI、JIAOTIHEGEZHONGYOUJIWU;

◆YIZHIHEKONGZHIWEIRONGYANDECHENDIAN;

◆DIAOJIEJINSHUIWENDUHEpH;

◆SHASIHEYIZHIWEISHENGWUDESHENGCHANG;

◆FANGZHITIE、MENGDENGJINSHUYANGHUAWUHEERYANGHUAGUIDECHENDIAN。

淤泥密度指數SDI值:

PANDUANFANSHENTOUHENALVJINSHUIJIAOTIHEKELIWURANCHENGDUDEZUIHAOJISHUSHICELIANGJINSHUIYUJIZHISHU(SDIZHI),YOUSHIYECHENGWEIWURANZHISHU(FIZHI)。TASHISHEJIRO/NFYUCHULIXITONGZHIQIANYINGGAIJINXINGCEDINGDEZHONGYAOZHIBIAO,TONGSHIZAIRORICHANGCAOZUOSHIYEXUDINGSHIDIJIANCE(DIBIAOSHUIYIBANJIANYIMEITIANSANCI)。YUJIZHISHUDECEDINGFANGFAZAIMEIGUOCAILIAOGONGCHENGXIEHUIASTMBIAOZHUNCESHIFANGFAD4189-82ZHONGYIZUOLEGUIDING。?

測量儀器:

◆47mmZHIJINGCESHIMOHE

◆47mmCESHIYONGMOPIAN(KONGJING0.45?m)

◆1~5bar(10~70psi)YALIBIAO

◆DIAOYAZHENXINGFA

測量步驟:

◆JIANGCESHIMOPIANXIAOXINFANGZAICESHIMOHENEI,YONGSHAOXUSHUIRUNSHIMOPIAN,NINGJIN“O”XINGMIFENGQUAN,JIANGMOHECHUIZHIFANGZHI,HUANYINGZHUYIMOPIANYOUZHENGFANMIANDEQUBIE

◆DIAOJIEJINSHUIYALIZHI2.1bar(30psi)BINGLIJIJILIANGKAISHIGUOLV500mLSHUIYANGDESHIJIANt0(TONGGUOLIANXUBUDUANDEDIAOJIE,SHIJINSHUIYALISHIZHONGBAOCHIBUBIAN)

◆ZAIJINSHUIYALIWEI2.1bar(30psi)XIALIANXUGUOLV15FENZHONG

◆15FENZHONGHOUJIXUJILUGUOLVTONGYANG500mLSUOXUDESHIJIANt15,BAOLIULVQISHANGDEMOPIANYIBIANZUOJINYIBUDEFENXI

預處理的方式:

◆SHUIDEHUNNINGYUCHENDIANCHULI;

◆SHUIDEDUOJIEZHIGUOLV;

◆SHUIDEHUOXINGTANGUOLV;

◆SHUIDERUANHUA;

◆QITAYUCHULI。

多介質過濾器:

DUOJIEZHIGUOLVQICAIYONGLVLIAODUIJIYUCHANGBINGSHUIMAOSHANG。(RUYOUTUSUOSHI)YOUXIAZISHANGLIJINGZHUJIJIANXIAO。

TONGCHANGCAIYONGDELIJINGWEIΦ5~2.5,Φ2.5~1.6,Φ1.6~0.6,Φ0.6~0.4DESHIYINGSHAHELIJINGWEIΦ0.8~1.8DEWUYANMEI。

各級配濾料的主要作用:

◆LIJINGΦ5~2.5SHIYINGSHA:ZHUYAOQISHANGCENGLVLIAODEZHICHENGZUOYONG。

◆LIJINGΦ2.5~1.6SHIYINGSHA:ZHUYAOQISHANGCENGLVLIAODEZHICHENGZUOYONG。

◆LIJINGΦ1.6~0.6MENGSHA:ZHUYAOQIQUCHUJINSHUIZHONGTIELIZIDEZUOYONG。

◆LIJINGΦ0.6~0.4SHIYINGSHA:ZHUYAOQIQUCHUJINSHUIZHONGDAKELIWURANWUJIXUANFUWUDEZUOYONG。

◆LIJINGΦ0.8~1.8WUYANMEI:JINYIBUQUCHUJINSHUIZHONGDAKELIWURANWUJIXUANFUWUDEZUOYONG。

多介質濾器的運行:

1、機械過濾器運行

1.1、JIXIEGUOLVQIMEICITOURUYUNXINGQIAN,SHOUXIANJINXINGPAIQI,TONGSHIKAIQISTJILIANGBENG;PAIQISHIKAIQILVQISHANGJINFAHEPAIQIFA,DANGPAIQIGUANLUCHUSHUIHOUPAIQIWANBI 。

1.2、PAIQIWANBIHOU,KAIQIXIAPAIFA,TONGSHIGUANBIPAIQIFA,DIAOJIEJINSHUILIULIANGCISHILVQIJINRUZHENGXIZHUANGTAI,DANGCHUSHUIWURANZHISHUSDI15≤4SHI,LVQITOURUYUNXING,YUNXINGLIUSUWEI5-10MI/XIAOSHI。

2、機械過濾器反洗

JIXIEGUOLVQISUIZHUYUNXINGSHIJIANDEYANCHANG,YACHAZENGJIA,DANGLVQIJINCHUSHUIYACHAZENGJIASHI,XUYAOFANXI。

2.1、FANCHONGSONGCENG:KAIQIXIAJINFAHOU,ZAIKAIQISHANGPAIFA,TONGSHIKAIQIYITAIFANXIBENG,TONGGUODIAOJIEFANXIBENGCHUSHUIFAHUOLVQIXIAJINFA,KONGZHIJINSHUILIANGYIBANWEIZHENGCHANGJINSHUILIANGDE2~3BEI,SONGCENGSHIJIANWEI2~5min。SONGCENGJIESHUHOU,GUANBISUOYOUFAMENHEBENG。

2.2 、FANGSHUI:KAIQIPAIQIFAJIXIAPAIFA,JIANGSHUIPAIZHIJIXIELVQINEILVCENGYISHANG20~30cmCHUHOUGUANBIXIAPAIFA。

2.3、QICAXI:BAOCHIPAIQIFAHESHANGPAIFADAKAI,DAKAILUOCIFENGJIDEPAIQIFA,QIDONGLUOCIFENGJI。RANHOUKAIQISHALVQIJINQIFA,GUANBILUOCIFENGJIPAIQIFA,SHALVQIJINRUQICAXIZHUANGTAI。JINQIYALIWEI0.03~0.1MPa,JINQILIANGWEI18~20L/S.m2,CAXISHIJIANWEI3~5min。KAIQILUOCIFENGJIPAIQIFA,GUANBILVQIJINQIFA,RANHOUTINGZHILUOCIFENGJI,ZAIGUANBILUOCIFENGJIPAIQIFA,QICAXIJIESHU。

2.4、SHUIDAFANXI:QIDONGYITAIFANXIBENG,KAIQIBENGCHUSHUIFA,ZAIKAIQISHALVQIXIAJINFA、SHANGPAIFA、PAIQIFA,YITAIFANXIBENGFANXIYUNXING2~3FENZHONGHOU,ZAIQIDONGLINGYITAIFANXIBENG,CISHISHALVQIJINRUDALIULIANGFANXIZHUANGTAI,FANXILIULIANGKONGZHIZAI15~16L/m2.s。FANXISHIJIAN30FENZHONGHOU,FANXICHUSHUIQINGCHESHI,TINGZHIYITAIFANXIBENG,GUO3~5FENZHONGHOUTINGZHILINGYITAIFANXIBENG,RANHOUGUANBILVQISHANGSUOYOUFAMENYIJIFANXIBENGHECHUSHUIFA,FANXIJIESHU。?

3、機械過濾器的正洗

3.1、GUANBIXIAJINFA、PAIQIFA,KAIQISHANGJINFAHEXIAPAIFA,TONGSHIKAIQISTJILIANGBENG,LVQIKAISHIZHENGXI。

3.2、ZHENGXILIULIANGWEIGONGZUOLIULIANG,ZHENGXISHIJIANYIBANWEI10~30min,DANGCHUSHUISDI15≤4SHI,ZHENGXIWANBI,LVQIKETOURUZHENGCHANGYUNXING,FAMENGONGZUOCHENGXUJIANXIABIAO。

閥門工作程序:

活性炭濾器:

HUOXINGTANLVQIDEZHUYAOZUOYONGWEIXIFUJINSHUIZHONGDEYOUJIWU、SEDU、YANGHUAXINGWUZHI。

LIANGHAODEHUOXINGTANBIBIAOMIANJIYIBANZAI1000m2/gYISHANG,KONGXIZONGRONGJIYIBANKEDA0.6~1.18mL/g,KONGJINGYOU0.001~10μm,ANKONGXIDAXIAOKEFENWEIDAKONG、GUODUKONGHEWEIKONG。

活性炭濾器運行:

1、活性炭濾器運行

1.1HUOXINGTANLVQIYUNXINGQIAN,KAIQIJINSHUIFAHEPAIQIFA,DANGPAIQIGUANLUCHUSHUISHI,LVQIPAIQIJIESHU,KAIQICHUSHUIFA,GUANBIPAIQIFA,TANLVQITOURUYUNXING,TANLVQIYUNXINGLIUSUTONGCHANGWEI10-15m/h。

2、活性炭濾器反洗

2.1、HUOXINGTANLVQISUIZHUYUNXINGYACHAZENGDA,DANGCHUSHUIBUFUHEZHIBIAO,DANGTANLVQIDEYACHAZENGDADAO0.05MpaSHI,TANLVQIKAISHIFANXI。TANLVQIFANXISHI,KAIQILVQISHANGPAIFAHEPAIQIFA,KAIQIYITAIFANXIBENGHEFANXIBENGCHUSHUIFA,RANHOUKAIQITANLVQIXIAJINFA,DIAOJIEFANXILIULIANGWEI8-10L/m2h,LIULIANGYUE200 m2/h ,FANXISHIJIANWEI20-30FENZHONG,DANGCHUSHUIQINGCHE,GUANBILVQISHANGSUOYOUFAMEN,FANXIBENGCHUSHUIFAHEFANXIBENG,FANXIJIESHU。

2.2、HUOXINGTANLVQIZHENGXI,LVQIFANXIJIESHUHOU,KAIQILVQIJINSHUIFAHEXIAPAIFA,YONGSHALVQICHUSHUILAIZHENGXIHUOXINGTANLVQI,ZHENGXILIULIANGWEIHUOXINGTANYUNXINGLIULIANG70 m2/hZUOYOU。ZHENGXISHIJIANYUEWEI20-30FENZHONG,DANGCHUSHUIMEIYOUTANMOXIALAI,CHUSHUIQINGCHE,FIZHISHUHEGEHOUZHENGXIJIESHU,LVQITOURUYUNXING。

閥門工作程序:

消毒殺菌:

◆ZIWAIXIANSHAJUN

◆JIALVSHAJUN

◆CHOUYANGSHAJUN

紫外線殺菌:

◆ZIWAIXIANSHAJUNSHIYIZHONGWULISHAJUNFA,XIJUNSHOUZIWAIGUANGZHAOSHEHOU,XIJUNHESUANYINXISHOUNENGLIANGERGAIBIANHUOLI,ZUIZHONGDAOZHIWEISHENGWUFASHENGBIANYIHUOSIWANG。BOCHANGZAI200-295nmDEZIWAIXIANJUYOUSHAJUNNENGLI,BOCHANG253.7nmDEZIWAIXIANSHAJUNXIAOGUOZUIHAO。

◆ZIWAIXIANSHAJUNDEYOUDIANSHIJIECHUSHIJIANDUAN,SHAJUNNENGLIQIANG,SHEBEIJIANDAN,CAOZUOGUANLIFANGBIAN,CHULISHIBUGAIBIANSHUIDEWULIHUAXUEXINGZHI,BUHUIDAIRUFUJIAWUZAOCHENGERCIWURAN。QIQUEDIANSHIMEIYOUCHIXUDESHAJUNZUOYONG,SHUIZAIGUANXIANZHONGKENENGBEIERCIWURAN,YINCIBUSHIHEYINYONGSHUIHECHUNJINGSHUIDEHOUQISHAJUN。

加氯殺菌:

◆LVQI,CILVSUANNA,ERYANGHUALV

◆JINNIANLAI,YINLVQIHECILVSUANNASHAJUNDEFUCHANPINSANLUJIAWANDUIRENTIDEWEIHAIBEIRENMENSUOLEJIE,ERYANGHUALVDEYINGYONGXUNSUFAZHANQILAI。

◆ERYANGHUALVDUIXIJUNDEXIBAOBIYOUJIAOQIANGDEXIFUHECHUANTOUNENGLI,KUAISUKONGZHIWEISHENGWUDANBAIZHIDEHECHENG,DUIXIJUNHEBINGDUYOUJIAOQIANGDEMIEHUONENGLI。

ERYANGHUALVYONGYUSHAJUNDETOUJIALIANGWEI0.4-0.45mg/l,BIJIALVQIHECILVSUANNADELIANGJIANSHAOYIBANZUOYOU。

臭氧殺菌:

◆CHOUYANGSHIYIZHONGCHANGYONGDESHAJUNJI,CHOUYANGZAIFENJIEZHONGFANGCHUXINSHENGTAIDEYANG,JUYOUQIANGYANGHUANENGLI,DUIWANQIANGDEWEISHENGWUYOUQIANGDADESHASHANGLI。CHOUYANGZAIJIZHONGSHAJUNJIZHONGYANGHUAHESHAJUNNENGLIZUIQIANG,XIAOGUOYEZUIHAO。

◆CHOUYANGSHAJUNXIAOGUOZHUYAOQUJUEYUSHENGYULIANGHEJIECHUSHIJIAN,ZAISHIJISHENGCHANZHONG,CHOUYANGYONGYUCHUNJINGSHUISHAJUNSUOXUDETOUJIALIANGWEI1-3mg/l,RUYONGYUKUANGQUANSHUIZHONGTOUJIALIANGYAOLVEGAO,YIBANKONGZHIZAITONGHUOPINGZHONGDECHOUYANGNONGDUDAYU0.5mg/l。JIECHUSHIJIANYIBANBUSHAOYU5min。

膜分離分類:

◆WEILV(MF)

◆CHAOLV(UF)

◆NALV(NF)

◆FANSHENTOU(RO)

微濾(MF):

JIELIUYUE0.1-10WEIMIZHIJIANDEKELI,WEILVMOYUNXUDAFENZIYOUJIWUHERONGJIEXINGGUTIDENGTONGGUO,NENGDANGZHUXUANFUWU、XIJUN、BUFENBINGDUHEDACHICUNDEJIAOTIDETOUGUO,WEILVMOLIANGCEDEYUNXINGYACHAYIBANXIAOYU1bar。

納濾(NF):

SHIYIZHONGTESHUDEFENLIMOPINZHONG,YINNENGJIELIUYUE1NAMI(0.001WEIMI)DAXIAODEWUZHIERDEMING,NALVDECAOZUOQUJIANJIEYUCHAOLVHEFANSHENTOUZHIJIAN,TAJIELIUYOUJIWUDEFENZILIANGYUEWEI200-400ZUOYOU,JIELIURONGJIEXINGYANDENENGLIWEI20-80%,DUIDANJIAYINLIZIYANRONGYEDETUOCHULVDIYUGAOJIAYINLIZIYANRONGYE,NALVMOYIBANYONGYUQUCHUDIBIAOSHUIDEYOUJIWUHESEDU,TUOCHUJINGSHUIDEYINGDU,BUFENQUCHURONGJIEXINGYAN,NONGSUOSHIPINHEFENLIYAOPINZHONGDEYOUYONGWUZHIDENG,NALVMOLIANGCEDEYUNXINGYACHAYIBANWEI3.5-16bar。

反滲透(RO):

ZUIJINGMIDEMOFAYETIFENLIJISHU,TANENGZUDANGSUOYOURONGJIEXINGYANHEFENZILIANGDAYU100DEYOUJIWU,DANYUNXUSHUIFENZITOUGUO,CUSUANXIANWEISUFANSHENTOUMOTUOYANLVYIBANDAYU95%,FANSHENTOUFUHEMOTUOYANLVYIBANDAYU98%。FANSHENTOUMOLIANGCEDEYUNXINGYACHAYIBANDAYU5bar。

卷式膜元件:

膜組件的選用:

◆QUEDINGYUANJIANSHU

◆YALIRONGQIDEXUANYONG

膜組件的排列組合:

◆FENDUANSHI

◆DUOJISHI?

反滲透裝置的配套件:

◆GAOYABENG

◆GUANLU

◆FAMEN

◆YIBIAO?

RO膜需要清洗的跡象:

◆DANGFANSHENTOUZHUANGZHISUIZHUYUNXINGZAIMOSHANGHUIJILEIJIAOTI、JINSHUYANGHUAWU、XIJUN、YOUJIJIAOTI、SHUIGOUDENGWUZHI,ZAOCHENGLEXINGNENGHUIYOUYIDINGXIAJIANG,DANGXINGNENGXIAJIANGYIDINGCHENGDUSHIJICHANSHUILIANGBICHUSHIHUOSHANGYICIQINGXIHOUJIANGDI。

◆CHANSHUITUOYANLVXIAJIANG。

◆XITONGYACHA≥15%。

反滲透污染特征:

膜元件化學清洗:

XIABIAOLIEJULESHIYIDEQINGXIYAOPIN,ZHEXIESUANXINGHEJIANXINGQINGXIJISHIBIAOZHUNDEQINGXIYAOPIN,SUANXINGQINGXIJIYONGYUQINGCHUBAOKUOTIEWURANZAINEI DEWUJIWURANWU,ERJIANXINGQINGXIJIYONGYUQINGXIBAOKUOWEISHENGWUZAINEIDEYOUJIWURANWU。YOUYUSHIYONGLIUSUANHUIYINQILIUSUANGAICHENDIANDEWEIXIAN,BUYINGXUANZUOQINGXIJI。ZUIHAOCAIYONGMOXITONGDECHANSHUIPEIZHIQINGXIYE,DANGRANZAIHENDUOQINGKUANGXIAYEKEYISHIYONGJINGGUOYUCHULIDEHEGEYUCHULICHUSHUILAIPEIZHIQINGXIYE。YUANSHUIKENENGHUANCHONGRONGLIANGHENDA,XUYAOXIAOHAOGENGDUODESUANHUOJIANCAINENGDADAOGUIDINGDEpHZHI,SUANXINGQINGXIDEpHYUEWEI2ZUOYOU,JIANXINGQINGXIDEpHYUEWEI12ZUOYOU。?

膜元件一般清洗液:

說明:

◆(W)BIAOSHIYOUXIAOCHENGFENDEZHONGLIANGBAIFENHANLIANG;

◆ANSHUNXUWURANWUHUAXUESHIFUHAOWEI:CaCO3BIAOSHITANSUANGAI;CaSO4BIAOSHILIUSUANGAI;BaSO4BIAOSHILIUSUANBEI。

◆ANSHUNXUQINGXIHUAXUEPINFUHAOWEI:NaOHBIAOSHIQINGYANGHUANA;Na4EDTABIAOSHIYIERANSIYISUANSINA,TAOSHIHUAXUESHENGCHANGAICHANPINDESHANGBIAOWEI VERSENE*;Na-SDSBIAOSHISHIERWANJIHUANGSUANNAYAN,YOUMINGYUEGUISUANNA;HClBIAOSHIYANSUAN;Na2S2O4BIAOSHIYALIUSUANQINGNA;H3PO4 BIAOSHILINSUAN;NH2SO3HBIAOSHIYALIUSUANQINGAN。

◆WEILEYOUXIAODEQINGXILIUSUANYANGOU,BIXUJINZAODEFAXIANHECHULI,YOUYULIUSUANYANGOUDERONGJIEDUSUIQINGXIYEHANYANLIANGDEZENGJIAERZENGJIA,KEYIZAINaOHHENa4EDTADEQINGXIYEZHONGTIANJIANaCl,DANGJIEGOUYIZHOUYISHANGSHI,LIUSUANYANGOUDEQINGXICHENGGONGXINGZHIDEHUAIYI。

◆NINGMENGSUANSHIWUJIYANGOUDEKEXUANQINGXIJI。?

預處理運行參數記錄:

因為RO/NF系統性能主要取決于預前處理操作是否合理,預處理儀器設備的運行特性必須記錄下來,因為預處理的工藝因地而異,無法建議統一的記錄表格,一般而言,需記錄以下各項:

◆MEITIANLIANGCIJILURENHEJINGSHUIHUOZENGYABENGDECHUSHUISHUIYA。

◆MEITIANLIANGCIJILUSUOYOUGUOLVQIDEYAJIANG。

◆RENHEBUZHENGCHANGDECAOZUO,RUGUZHANGHUOTINGJIDENG。?

納濾分離膜的內涵:

SHICHANGSHANGCENGYOUYIZHONGLIUXINGDESHUOFA:NALVJIUSHIYIZHONGSHUSONGDEFANSHENTOU。SHIJISHANGZHESHIYIZHONGJISHUGAINIANSHANGDEWUDAO。BIAO2-2WEIBUTONGMODEJIELIULVBIJIAO。ZHENZHENGFENLIGAINIANSHANGDENALVSHIDUILIZIJUYOUXUANZEJIELIUXINGDEGUOLVMO,YIZHONGLVHUANATOUGUOLVYULVHUANANONGDUCHENGZHENGBI、QIEGAIBILIDAYU0.4DEMO。QIZHUYAOYONGYUGEZHONGLIAOYEDETUOYANHENONGSUO。

不同膜的截留率比較:

耐高溫膜:

PUTONGDEYOUJIMOYUANJIANDECHIXUCAOZUOWENDUBIXUDIYU50℃,RUGUOCHAOGUOCIWENDUMOJIANGHENKUAISANGSHIZHENGCHANGDEXINGNENG。GEGONGSIPINGJIEQIQIANGDADEMOJISHUYANFANENGLIKAIFACHUNAIGAOWENMOYUANJIAN:DurathermXILIE,QIZHUYAOYINGYONGYU:SHIPINHEYINLIAO,ZHIYAO,DIANZIDENGXINGYEZHONG。

Duratherm應用流域:

Duratherm HWSRESHUIXIAODUXINGMOYUANJIANNENGGOUNAISHOUZHOUQIXING90℃RESHUIQINGXIXIAODU,YONGYUTIDAICHUANTONGDEMOXITONGHUAXUEXIAODU,TONGSHIKEYIZAI≤50 ℃DETIAOJIANXIALIANXUYUNXING。ZAIOUMEIDIQU,RESHUIXIAODUXINGSHUICHULIXITONGZHENGZAIYUELAIYUEDUODIBEICAIYONG。XIABIAOJIESHAOLESHIREMIEJUNFADECAOZUOTIAOJIAN(WENDUHESHIJIAN)

YISHANGSHUJUWEIDUIWUXINGFANZHIDEWEISHENGWUREXIAODUDEZUIDILILUNCANSHU,WEILEZENGJIAREXIAODUDEYOUXIAOXING,ZAISHIJIYINGYONGZHONGREXIAODUDEWENDUHESHIJIANYINGGAOYUCILILUNCANSHU。

熱水消毒的有關建議:

◆ZAIXIAODUZHIQIANYONGFANGWUDUSHUIJINXINGCHONGXI

◆XIAODUSHI,JINSHUIYALIBUYINGCHAOGUO40psi(275KPa)

◆XIAODUSHI,SHENGWENHELENGQUESULVBUYINGDAYU5℃/FENZHONG

◆ZUIGAOXIAODUWENDUWEI90℃